Understanding the personality of other people is extremely useful in establishing effective relationships with others. This page explains how to identify other people’s personality.
The notion of personality type was introduced by the famous psychologist Carl G. Jung . According to Carl G. Jung, people can be characterized by two dimensions, each represented by two opposites:
- Sensing vs. Intuition (S-N)
- Thinking vs. Feeling (T-F)
This produces 4 possible personality groups, each having distinct personality characteristics, marked as ST, NT, SF and NF:
Sensing vs. Intuition and Thinking vs. Feeling
To determine whether the other person is a sensing (S) or an intuitive (N) type, choose the box containing characteristics that describe the other person most:
- Relies on facts, numbers; specific
- Present-oriented, concerned about problem in hand
- Insightful and inspirational
- Relies on insights, theories, trends of development
To determine whether the other person is a thinking (T) or feeling (F) type, choose the box containing characteristics that describe the other person most:
- Governed by a rational beginning, reason
- Objective, cold and impersonal
- Uses logical analysis and objective methodologies to solve problems and make decisions
- Governed by emotional beginning, feelings
- Shows sympathy, warmth, concern and support to others
- Makes decisions and solves problems based on "gut feeling", values, "good"/"bad", "like"/"dislike"
A combination of S-N and T-F preference determines personality type group the other person belongs to - either ST, NT, SF or NF.
Extraversion vs. Introversion
An additional dichotomy dimension, Extraversion – Introversion, can be used for a more comprehensive understanding of personality.
According to Carl G. Jung's approach to personality, extraversion is the tendency toward active actions as a dynamic response to the events and information from the external world. Extraverted people draw the energy for their undertakings from the outside world. The outside world is the main driver of their actions and the main motivational factor. They typically have numerous contacts with others, even if their job does not require it.
Introversion is the tendency to reflect on one's own perceptions, thoughts and feelings. Introverted people draw the energy for their undertakings mainly from their inner world. The inner world is a very significant stimulus for their actions and is a very important motivational factor. They are unlikely to have numerous contacts with others, unless their job requires it.
Since in a workplace both extraverted and introverted people may have numerous contacts, this fact in itself cannot be used to conclude a slant to extraversion. Differentiating characteristics are better observed outside of workplace and in an informal environment. An extravert will energetically participate in conversations and activities. An introvert will try to find a place of solitude where he or she can avoid active contacts and can focus on their own thoughts and things they like.
- Draws energy from outside
- Responds to and initiates events in the external world
- Has numerous contacts with others, even if their job does not require it
- Prefers communicating in a group
- Doesn’t mind interruptions
- Draws energy from inner world
- Is focused and reflects on the inner world
- Has few contacts with others, unless their job requires it
- Prefers communicating one on one
- Dislikes interruptions, needs quiet to focus
Use the table above to identify extraverted vs. introverted personalities in other people.
E-I dimension together with T-F and S-N dimensions in Carl G. Jung typology form 8 possible combinations or groups with distinct behavioural qualities described above: EST, ESF, ENT, ENF, IST, ISF, INT, INF.